An Action Plan for Solving Our Climate Crisis Now

Electrify Transportation
Reduce 8 gigatons of transportation emissions to 2 gigatons by 2050.

Achieve price parity between EVs and gas-powered vehicles in the U.S. by 2024, in India and China by 2030.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

$54,288 (average EV) vs. $47,209 (average full-size car) in the U.S.

Source: Kelley Blue Book, 2023


Increase EV sales to 50% of all new car sales by 2030, 95% by 2040.

Updated April 2024
On Track

EV share of car sales was 17.7% in 2023

(BEVs and PHEVs)

Source: BloombergNEF, 2024


Electrify all new buses by 2025.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

43% of new bus purchases were electric in 2023

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023


Increase sales of zero-emissions medium and heavy trucks to 30% of all new truck sales by 2030; 95% by 2045.

Updated April 2024

Electric share of global truck sales was 2% in 2023

(BEVs, FCVs, and PHEVs)

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023

Miles ↓ 5 Gt

Increase miles driven by electric vehicles (two- and three-wheelers, cars, buses, and trucks) to 50% of the global total by 2040, 95% by 2050.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

EV global share of miles driven across road vehicles in 2022: 10.4%

(BEVs, FCVs, and PHEVs)

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023

Planes ↓ 0.3 Gt

Increase low-carbon fuel (SAF) to 20% of all aviation fuel by 2025; zero-emissions fuel to 40% by 2040.

Updated April 2024

0.4% of fuel use is low carbon (SAF)

Source: BloombergNEF, 2024

Maritime ↓ 0.6 Gt

Shift all new construction to “zero-ready” ships by 2030; zero out emissions for the shipping industry by 2050.

Updated April 2024

Zero percent of new ships are carbon-neutral

Source: Global Martime Forum, 2023

Decarbonize the Grid
Reduce 24 gigatons of global electricity and heating emissions to 3 gigatons by 2050.
Zero Emissions ↓ 16.5 Gt

Tap emissions-free sources to generate 50% of electricity worldwide by 2025, 90% by 2035.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

39% of electricity came from emissions free sources in 2022

Source: Energy Institute, 2023

Solar & Wind

Make solar and wind cheaper than fossil fuels in all countries by 2025.

Updated April 2024
On Track

59% of the world’s population lives in nations where renewable sources are cheaper than fossil fuels

Source: BloombergNEF, 2024


Electricity storage drops below $50 per kWh for short duration (4–24 hours) by 2025, $10 per kWh for long duration (14–30 days) by 2030.

Updated April 2024

Short-term storage: $263/kWh

Long-term storage: New technologies needed

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023

Coal & Gas

Eliminate new coal and gas plants from 2024 on; retire or zero out emissions in existing plants by 2025 for coal and by 2035 for gas.*

Updated April 2024
Code Red

Now in operation globally: 6,580 coal-fired plants and 9,278 gas and oil plants

Source: Global Energy Monitor, 2024

As of 2023, separate figures for oil and gas plants are not available.


Methane Emissions ↓ 3 Gt

Reduce flaring and eliminate leaks and venting from coal, oil, and gas sites by 2025.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

Methane emissions from the energy sector were 3 gigatons in 2023

Heating & Cooking ↓ 1.5 Gt

Cut fossil fuels for heating and cooking in half by 2040.*

Updated April 2024

In 2021, building heating generated 2.5 Gt of emissions and over 7 billion people used fossil fuels for cooking

Cleaner Economy

Triple the ratio of GDP to fossil fuel consumption.

Updated April 2024

Global average: $241 of GDP per Exajoule of Fossil Fuel Consumption

Fix Food
Reduce 9 gigatons of agricultural emissions to 2 gigatons by 2050.
Farm Soils ↓ 2 Gt

Improve soil health by increasing carbon content in topsoils to a minimum of 3% by 2035.

Updated May 2024
Limited Data

Limited Data

Fertilizers ↓ 0.5 Gt

Stop overuse of nitrogen-based fertilizers and develop cleaner alternatives to cut emissions in half by 2050.

Updated April 2024

The world uses 65.5 kilograms per hectare of nitrogen-based fertilizers

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization and Our World in Data, 2023

Cows ↓ 3 Gt

Cut emissions from beef and dairy consumption by 25% by 2030, 50% by 2050.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

3.3 gigatons of emissions from beef and dairy in 2021

Rice ↓ 0.5 Gt

Reduce methane and nitrous oxide from rice farming by 50% by 2050.

Updated April 2024

1.1 gigaton of CO2e resulting from rice production

Source: Our World in Data, 2024

Food Waste ↓ 1 Gt

Cut food waste to 10% by 2050.

Updated April 2024

38% of food in the US is wasted

Source: ReFed, 2022

Protect Nature
Go from 6 gigatons of emissions to -1 gigatons by 2050.
Forests ↓ 6 Gt

Achieve net zero deforestation by 2030; end logging and other destructive practices in primary forests.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

17.6 million hectares of permanent tree cover loss

Source: Global Forest Watch, 2022

Oceans ↓ 1 Gt

Protect 30% of oceans by 2030, 50% by 2050.

Updated April 2024

8.2% of coastal oceans are protected

Source: Protected Planet, 2024


Expand protected lands to 30% by 2030, 50% by 2050.

Updated April 2024

16% of global lands are protected

Source: Protected Planet, 2024

Clean Up Industry
Reduce 12 gigatons of industrial emissions to 4 gigatons by 2050.
Steel ↓ 3 Gt

Reduce emissions from steel production 50% by 2030, 90% by 2040.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

1.9 metric tons of CO2 per metric ton of crude steel cast

Source: WorldSteel, 2023

Cement ↓ 2 Gt

Reduce emissions from cement production 25% by 2030, 90% by 2040.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

0.6 metric tons of CO2 per metric ton of cement produced

Other Industries ↓ 3 Gt

Reduce emissions from other industrial sources (primarily plastics, chemicals, paper, aluminum, glass, and apparel) 60% by 2050.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

5 gigatons emitted from other industries

Source: Climate TRACE, 2024

Remove Carbon
Remove 10 gigatons of carbon dioxide per year from the atmosphere.
Nature-Based Removal ↓ 5 Gt

Remove at least 3 gigatons per year by 2030 and 5 gigatons by 2040.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

0.02 gigatons of nature-based carbon removal being tracked

Source: Climate Focus, 2024

Engineered Removal ↓ 5 Gt

Remove at least 1 gigaton per year by 2030 and 5 gigatons by 2050.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

Currently, 0.0002 gigatons are being removed annually

Source:, 2024

Net Zero Pledges

Each country commits to reach net zero by 2050.*

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

China: net zero by 2060

U.S.: net zero by 2050

EU: net zero by 2050

India: net zero by 2070

Russia: net zero by 2060

Action Plans

Each country is on track to cut emissions in half by 2030.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

2030 trajectory:

China: 4°C

US: 3°C

EU: 2°C

India: 4°C

Russia: 4°C


Source: Climate Action Tracker, 2023

Carbon Price

National prices on greenhouse gases are set at a minimum of $75 per ton, rising 5% annually.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

Global average price: $33 per ton

23% of global emissions are covered by a carbon pricing mechanism



Direct subsidies to fossil fuel companies are eliminated.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

$1.3 trillion in explicit fossil fuel subsidies globally


Control flaring, prohibit venting, and mandate prompt capping of methane leaks.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

Countries representing 50% of global methane emissions have signed the global methane pledge

Source: Global Methane Pledge, 2024


Countries commit to phasing out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

Updated April 2024
On Track

All five major emitters have ratified the Kigali amendment


The climate crisis becomes a top-three issue.

Updated April 2024

Climate’s rank as top issue: seventh globally

Source: Ipsos, 2023



A majority of key government officials support the drive to net zero.

Updated April 2024
Limited Data

Limited Data


100% of Fortune Global 500 companies commit to reach net zero by 2050.

Updated April 2024

9.2% of Fortune Global 500 Companies have a net zero commitment

Source: Speed & Scale, 2024

Data is pulled from Fortune Global 500 websites to track emissions targets of each corporation

Education Equity

The world achieves universal primary and secondary education by 2040.

Updated April 2024

77% of students complete lower secondary school

Source: World Bank, 2023

Health Equity

The world eliminates gaps in pollution-linked mortality rates among racial and socioeconomic groups by 2040.

Updated April 2024

2.3 years (global average loss of life due to air pollution)

Source: Air Quality Life Index (AQLI), 2023

Economic Equity

The global clean energy transition creates 65 million fairly distributed new jobs by 2040, outpacing the loss of fossil fuel jobs.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

13.7 million people employed directly and indirectly


10,000 GWh of batteries are produced annually at less than $80 per kWh by 2035.

Updated April 2024
On Track

Production: 2,592 per GWh

Price: $139 per kWh 

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023


The cost of zero-emissions baseload power is lowered to $0.02 per kWh by 2030.

Updated April 2024
On Track

$0.03 per kWh for utility-scale onshore wind

$0.05 per kWh for utility-scale solar PV

Green Hydrogen

Cost of producing hydrogen from zero-emissions sources drops to $2 per kg by 2030, $1 per kg by 2040.

Updated April 2024

$2-$12 per kg, not currently produced at scale

Source: BloombergNEF, 2023

Carbon Removal

Cost of engineered carbon dioxide removal falls to $100 per ton by 2030, $50 per ton by 2040.

Updated April 2024
Code Red

Average of $715 per ton of carbon removed, not at scale

Source:, 2024

Carbon-Neutral Fuels

Cost of synthetic fuel drops to $2.50 per gallon for jet fuel and $3.50 for gasoline by 2035.

Updated April 2024

Jet Fuel: $2.94 (Traditional) vs. $7.35 (Sustainable)

Vehicle Fuel: $4.02 (Diesel) vs. $4.76 (Biodiesel)

Source: International Air Transport Association, BloombergNEF, and Alternative Fuels Data Center, 2023

Diesel and Biodiesel are U.S. prices

Financial Incentives

Global government support and incentives for clean energy expand to $600 billion per year.

Updated April 2024
Limited Data

Limited Data

Government R&D

Public investment in sustainability research and development increases to $120 billion per year.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

Low carbon R&D globally: $23 billion

Venture Capital

Private investment into cleantech startups totals $50 billion per year.

Updated April 2024

$51 billion invested in climate tech startups

Source: BloombergNEF, 2024

Project Financing

Clean energy project financing rises to $1 trillion per year.

Updated April 2024
On Track

Clean energy financing is at an all-time high, hitting $743 billion

Source: BloombergNEF, 2024


Philanthropic dollars for tackling emissions grow to $30 billion per year.

Updated April 2024
Insufficient Progress

Less than 2% (between $8 billion and $13 billion) of philanthropic giving is dedicated to climate change mitigation

2024 Action Guide

Our aim is to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2050—and get halfway there by 2030.

The Speed & Scale plan is a pathway toward achieving that ambitious goal. For example, we can cut six billion tons of greenhouse gasses—10 percent of the annual global total—by electrifying transportation. To reach this objective, we’ll need specific actions: replacing diesel buses with electric ones, installing hundreds of thousands of vehicle charging stations, and more.

In confronting this enormous challenge, we must be strategic. What should we do first? What will have the biggest difference? Here’s our shortlist of high-impact actions you can take in 2024.

What Can You Do?

As an individual you can:

Switch to an electric vehicle:

If you can’t afford one right now, commit to making the vehicle you drive today the last fossil fuel vehicle you will own or lease. (On average, gasoline accounts for 25 percent of a household’s carbon footprint.)

Power your home with clean energy:

Sign up for a clean(er) energy plan from your utility. Or add solar panels and a battery to reduce your reliance on the local grid (and, by extension, on fossil fuels). Replace your gas appliances with electric heat pumps and an electric or induction stove. Install a smart thermostat and insulate your home. (On average, electricity and heating account for 14 percent of a household’s carbon footprint.)

Eat less beef and waste less food:

Consume lower-emissions proteins such as pork, chicken, or fish, or one of the many new plant-based proteins. Throw out less food, and compost what you don’t eat. (On average, food accounts for 19 percent of a household’s carbon footprint, with nearly half of that from dairy and meat.)

On their own, there are limits to what any individual can accomplish in this arena. How can you increase your impact? To make your voice heard on the important climate policy decisions of the day, join a climate advocacy organization such as The Climate Reality Project,, or one of the many global Climate Action Network members.

What Can Your Company or Organization Do?

As an executive or manager, you can:

Procure clean energy:

Convert your office, factory, store, or restaurant to carbon-free electricity. Call your utility to identify your options. Deploy solar and batteries onsite. To reduce fossil fuel consumption, replace gas appliances with electric heat pumps, boilers, and stoves. If your company owns your building, you can take these initiatives yourself; if not, reach out to the owner. 

Decarbonize your transport of people and goods:

For companies with their own vehicle fleets, now is the time to plan to electrify them. Set a progressive, year-by-year procurement target to get you to 100 percent electricity-powered cars by 2030 and electricity-powered trucks by 2035. Regardless of where we stand with the pandemic, don’t rush back to sending people on business flights. Capitalize on the efficiencies and flexibility of virtual meetings. Set a higher bar for stepping on a plane.

Shrink the carbon footprint of the goods you manufacture:

You can’t manage what you don’t measure. Start by tracking and cutting emissions for anything you produce. A few practical options: Seek out new suppliers. Use cleaner heat sources in your production processes. Move to climate-friendly materials and packaging. Label your goods with clear recycling and composting instructions.

Purchase high-quality carbon removal:

As described in Speed & Scale, your first priority is to cut your emissions by finding cleaner alternatives. Your next challenge is to conserve energy with greater efficiency. Finally, you need to remove and sequester your remaining CO2 emissions from the atmosphere–either through nature-based options like reforestation or engineered removal options like Climeworks or Charm Industrial.

As an employee, you can advocate for any or all of these actions. In concert with like-minded co-workers, make the case that these planet-friendly changes will strengthen the company’s brand, boost employee morale, and build a climate-conscious customer base.

What Can Your City Do?

As an elected or government official, you can:

Work with your electric utility to cut emissions by 90 percent by 2035:

Since cities are often their local utilities’ partners and largest customers, see to it that new investments in the power grid are channeled toward carbon-free energy sources. Create a plan that cuts greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2025 and by 90 percent by 2035.

Update building codes to end the use of natural gas and consume less energy:

Following the lead of New York City and Denver, tighten rules to prohibit natural gas in new construction. Alternatives: for heating and cooling, energy-saving electric heat pumps; for water heaters, electric boilers. For climate-friendly cooking, look to induction stoves. When gas-powered appliances break, codes should mandate their replacement with electric equivalents.

Build out a citywide network of protected bike lanes:

This offers the highest return on investment of infrastructure dollars for easing and speeding commutes, reducing congestion, and cutting a city’s emissions. By making cycling safer, protected lanes will broaden its adoption. 

The emissions profile for each city will vary based on its geography and urban layout. By checking your city’s greenhouse gas inventory, you’ll see the potential local impact of these three actions for cutting greenhouse gas emissions. For example, according to New York City’s published annual inventory, 36 percent of emissions come from natural gas, 29 percent from electricity generation, and 24 percent from transportation. By comparison, Denver generates 35 percent of its emissions from electricity generation, 20 percent from transportation, and 14 percent from natural gas. Los Angeles has a very different emissions profile, with transportation accounting for 62 percent of its emissions.

Your State or Provincial Government

As an elected or government official, you can:

Finance large energy projects:

To stay on pace to cut emissions in half by 2025 and by 90 percent by 2035, pass legislation and finance grid improvements, electricity storage, and new solar, wind, and geothermal energy projects. Since demand for electricity will keep rising as we’re cleaning our grids, utilities cannot do this alone.

Unblock and then accelerate electrification:

Red tape is slowing the deployment of solar, battery, and charging projects that need to be built today. Pass statewide policy to address permitting issues. Incentivize consumer purchases of EVs and adoption of solar, and electrified mass transit and school buses. Deploy charging infrastructure.

Require private planes to use sustainable jet fuel:

There is no existing market for sustainably produced jet fuel, which would cut aviation emissions up to 80 percent. At present, the technology is new and the volume of production is low, making the fuel too expensive for commercial air travel without regulation. But action on the state level can begin to shift that equation. To lower the price and increase availability, states can require private planes to use a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) blend for trips to and from its airports.

What Can Your Federal Government Do?

As an elected or government official, you can:

Pay for innovation:

Governments are in a unique position to catalyze research, development, and deployment of clean energy. The U.S. needs to increase its grants and loans for energy R&D by 5x; other countries should aim to triple their R&D funding. Even more directly, governments are significant purchasers of energy, heating and cooling, and vehicles. It can use its procurement power to purchase the cleaner, greener alternative.

End deforestation and accelerate reforestation:

Pass laws to end human-caused deforestation by 2025, which is five years ahead of the target set at COP26.

Tax methane and other carbon pollution:

Charge oil and gas companies for flaring, venting, and leaks. (Or simply prohibit it using regulations.) Signal to the market that a carbon tax on industry is coming, in part to keep the U.S. competitive with the European Union.

Use market and efficiency standards to accelerate the phaseout of fossil fuels

Set standards that phase out fossil fuels for motor vehicles, appliances, and other energy-intensive products. Example: a program that sets efficiency targets based on the best-performing available product.

As a voter, you can contact your elected representative and share how important these actions are to you. Attend public meetings where these topics are discussed and make your voice heard. If your officials fail to take action, mobilize and register people to vote for new officials who will. Organize or support ballot propositions. Join an organization working to enact climate solutions.

Companies can also be powerful advocates for a net zero future. The clean energy transition is a tremendous economic opportunity. To create jobs and lead in the new clean energy economy, companies can demand action from city, state, and federal governments.

Additional Resources
Resource April 15, 2024


Speed & Scale is a platform and global action plan to zero out the world’s 59 gigatons of annual greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. It is organized around objectives... Read More.